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Tata Capital > Blog > Generic > What Are PSU Banks? Your Burning Question Answered!


What Are PSU Banks? Your Burning Question Answered!

What Are PSU Banks? Your Burning Question Answered!

PSU banks are an integral part of India's banking sector. But what exactly are they? How do they function? And why are they important for the economy? In this article, we will answer all your burning questions about PSU banks and provide you with a comprehensive understanding of their role in India's financial landscape.

What Are PSU Banks?

Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) banks are government-owned financial institutions where the majority stake (more than 50%) is held by the Ministry of Finance or State Ministry of Finance. These banks play a crucial role in fostering social welfare and economic development by providing affordable banking services to people across the country.

The government's majority ownership ensures that PSU banks operate with the primary aim of public interest. They follow financial guidelines formulated by the government, which inspire trust among depositors that their money is safe and secure. Additionally, these banks charge lower fees compared to private banks, making them more accessible to a wider population.

12 PSU Banks in India

Currently, there are 12 PSU banks in India. Each bank has its headquarters located in different cities across the country. Let's take a look at these banks along with their establishment year:

1. Bank of Baroda

2. Bank of India

3. Bank of Maharashtra

4. Central Bank of India

5. Canara Bank

6. Indian Bank

7. Indian Overseas Bank

8. Punjab National Bank

9. Punjab and Sind Bank

10. State Bank of India

11. Union Bank of India

12. UCO Bank

The presence of these 12 PSU banks ensures that banking services are accessible to people in both urban and rural areas across the country.

Small PSU Banks

Among the 12 PSU banks, some are considered small PSU banks due to their relatively smaller asset size and market capitalization compared to larger PSU banks like the State Bank of India. These small PSU banks play a vital role in providing banking services to specific regions or communities.

While the larger PSU banks have a nationwide presence, small PSU banks focus on serving a targeted customer base in localized areas. This allows them to cater to the unique financial needs of specific regions, thereby contributing to financial inclusion and economic growth at a local level.

Challenges Faced by PSU Banks

Like any other sector, PSU banks also face various challenges in their functioning. It's important to understand these challenges to gain a holistic perspective on their operations and performance.

1. Financial Loss in Rural Branches

PSU banks have the responsibility to open branches in both urban and rural areas for financial inclusion. However, operating in rural areas can be challenging as these branches often face higher costs and lower business volumes compared to urban branches. This can lead to financial losses for these rural branches.

2. High Overdue Amounts

The government often waives loans for farmers and other economically backward sectors to support them financially. While this is done with good intentions, it can result in high overdue amounts for PSU banks as they have to bear the burden of unpaid loans.

3. Competition from Private Banks

Private sector banks with advanced infrastructure and customer service often attract customers away from PSU banks. The conventional banking methods followed by PSU banks may seem less attractive to the younger, tech-savvy generation who prefer the convenience and efficiency offered by private banks.

4. Non-Performing Assets (NPAs)

Non-Performing Assets, also known as bad loans, impact the profitability of PSU banks. Low asset growth and high loan write-offs can lead to a decline in their financial health. However, it is important to note that PSU banks have made significant improvements in managing NPAs over the years.

Understanding the Significance of PSU Banks

PSU banks play a critical role in India's economy. They ensure financial inclusion by providing affordable banking services to people across different regions and economic strata. These banks are instrumental in implementing various government schemes aimed at uplifting marginalized sections of society.

Furthermore, PSU banks contribute to economic growth by providing credit facilities to businesses, supporting infrastructure development projects, and promoting entrepreneurship. Their presence in both urban and rural areas ensures that banking services reach every corner of the country.


In conclusion, PSU banks are government-owned financial institutions that play a pivotal role in India's banking sector. They provide affordable banking services to individuals and businesses across the country while focusing on social welfare and economic development. Despite facing challenges such as financial losses in rural branches and competition from private sector banks, PSU banks continue to be an integral part of India's financial system.

If you're looking for reliable financial solutions tailored to your specific needs, Tata Capital can assist you with a range of products and services. Whether you need a personal loan, home loan, or investment opportunities, Tata Capital is committed to enabling your growth and financial empowerment.

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