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Tata Capital > Blog > Loan on Property > Types of Mortgage Loans: Diving into the World of Mortgage Loans

Loan on Property

Types of Mortgage Loans: Diving into the World of Mortgage Loans

Types of Mortgage Loans: Diving into the World of Mortgage Loans

As a homebuyer, finding your dream property is only half the battle. Unless you’ve got a huge lump sum of cash, your options boil down to taking out a mortgage. And that’s the other half of the battle.

But before the shopping around and approvals come into the picture, you need to decide which home loan option suits you the best. Yes, there are several different types of mortgage loans depending on the use case, and choosing the right one can be the difference between financial struggle and worry-free homeownership.

To help you choose with greater confidence, let’s explore the four most common types of mortgage loans.

Types of mortgage loans in India

Mortgage loans in India are segregated into seven categories based on the nature of the transaction and interest rate calculation. Here are all of them:

Types of mortgage loans: Based on interest rate

1. Fixed-rate mortgage loans

As the name suggests, fixed-rate mortgages come with a set interest rate, applicable throughout the tenure. Because the rate is fixed, borrowers can easily calculate their outlay as the size of the EMIs will be the same for the entire loan term.

Also, with fixed-rate mortgage loans, you don’t have to worry about market shifts and the consequent rise in interest rates. However, you also don’t benefit from the reduced interest rates from such shifts.

2. Variable-rate mortgage loans

Variable-rate (or floating-rate) mortgages have an interest rate that fluctuates over time. These fluctuations usually come from movement in the rate quoted by the bank, which is influenced by the repo rate controlled by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). If the repo rate drops, so does the interest rate and vice-versa.

So, if you’re certain that the economy is going to progress, you can get a floating-rate mortgage, as the interest rates will always be on the lower side. But remember, there’s an equal probability of the economy plummeting and interest rates shooting up. It would be best if you made a decision keeping both possibilities in mind.

3. Adjustable-rate mortgage loans

Adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) lies at the intersection of the twotypes of mortgage loans discussed above. For a certain initial period of the loan, you will have a fixed interest rate. It could be the first five, seven, or ten years.

After this period, the interest rate will change based on market dynamics and original loan terms. Also, this rate will keep changing, usually every six months. But that’s not concrete. ARMs come with a variety of adjustment intervals and lengths, and you can pick one according to your preferences.

The ARM rates change as per the index, which is a benchmark interest rate that reflects the market conditions. Lenders use this index, add their margin to it, and that’s the interest rate you have to pay. In case the index shoots up in response to a declining economy, your interest rate will significantly shoot up.

In some scenarios, these economic fluctuations can lead to a dangerous and unaffordable increase in interest rates. But the opposite is also possible.

Given the uncertainties associated with ARMs, they are best suited for people who are likely to move a lot, preferably before the initial fixed-rate period elapses.

So, these are some of the types of mortgage loans associated with interest rates. Choosing the right one will allow you to service your loans without financial headaches.

Types of mortgage loans: Based on the nature of the transaction

1. Simple Mortgage

In a simple mortgage loan, the lender reserves the right to sell the property if the borrower defaults. However, the ownership of the property isn’t transferred to the lender. Under such mortgage loans, the borrower has to sign an agreement granting the lender the right to sell.

2. Mortgage by Conditional Sale

Under this type of mortgage loan, the lender has the right to put up conditions regarding repayment that the borrower must meet. These conditions usually outline clauses related to the sale of a house in case of non-repayment or delays in payment. Also, these conditions may include interest rate penalties due to regular delays in repayments or non-repayment.

3. English Mortgage

Here, the borrower agrees to fully repay the mortgage loan on a certain date while transferring the ownership of the property to the lender. That said, the lender has to re-transfer the property to the borrower if the repayment is made in full by the specified date. In case of a default, the lender is allowed to sell the property and recover the debt through the proceeds.

4. Usufructuary Mortgage 

Lenders usually have the upper hand in this type of mortgage loan. Here, the borrowers need to transfer the possession of the property, along with the usage rights, to the lender. However, the borrowers still retain the ownership of the property or land.

The lender also has the right to put up the property on rent or enjoy the income from the produce generated by the property until the loan repayment is complete.

Choosing the right type of mortgage loan, in terms of the nature of the transaction, will allow you to better manage your assets without giving up too much control.

Final word

Now that you’re aware of the various types of loans for mortgage available for homebuying, you can make an informed borrowing decision keeping your finances in mind. Remember that the eligibility criteria and approval process vary between lenders.

So, conduct thorough research, shop around, and compare the loan terms offered by different lenders to find the option that suits you the best.

Or, you could just opt for Tata Capital’s housing loan and cut short your purchase process. Apart from our attractive interest rates, we offer flexible repayment options, fast loan processing, and customer service that is always there to help.

All in all, we help you get to your dream home quickly without the associated financial worries.

Learn more about our loan on our website.

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