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Tata Capital > Blog > Loan on Property > What is Mortgage Deed?

Loan on Property

What is Mortgage Deed?

What is Mortgage Deed?

Are you aware that approximately 69% of Indians own a home, with the majority having a mortgage? Knowing about the details of a "mortgage deed" is crucial if you want to own a home. In this article, we'll look deeply into understanding what is mortgage deed, exploring the concept of mortgage deeds, their significance and the essential elements that constitute them.

What is a Mortgage?

A mortgage is a legal agreement that establishes a secure relationship between a borrower and a lender, in which the borrower pledges a property as collateral for a loan. This security serves as a guarantee for the lender, providing them with the confidence that they can recover their funds if the borrower defaults on their loan repayments. Various types of mortgages exist, catering to different financial situations and preferences. Examples include fixed-rate mortgages (with a constant interest rate throughout the loan term), adjustable-rate mortgages (with fluctuating interest rates) and interest-only mortgages (in which only interest is paid for a specific period, followed by the principal).

What is a Mortgage Deed?

A mortgage deed is a vital legal document that solidifies the borrower's commitment to the mortgage agreement. It delineates the loan's terms and conditions, the borrower's promise to repay the loan, and the lender's right to foreclose on the property if the borrower defaults on their repayments. Mortgage deeds are essential for both the borrower and the lender, as they are recorded in public records and offer legal protection to both parties.

Types of Mortgage Deeds

Simple Mortgage Deed: This is a legal document wherein the borrower promises to repay the loan, and the property serves as collateral without transferring its possession. In case of default, the lender has the legal right to sell the property to recover the outstanding debt.

Equitable Mortgage Deed: This involves the borrower transferring the property's title deeds to the lender as security. However, the borrower retains possession of the property. In the event of default, the lender can apply for a court order to sell the property and recover the loan amount.

Mortgage by Conditional Sale: In this type of mortgage deed, the borrower conditionally sells the property to the lender, with the agreement that the property will be returned to the borrower upon loan repayment. If the borrower defaults, the lender takes full ownership of the property.

Mortgage by Deposit of Title Deeds: This involves the borrower transferring the property's title deeds to the lender with the understanding that the property will be returned upon repayment of the loan. The lender may also receive a personal agreement from the borrower for added security.

Anomalous Mortgage Deed: This encompasses any mortgage that does not fall into the above categories. It may be a combination of two or more types of mortgage deeds or include specific clauses and conditions not covered by the standard categories.

When is the Mortgage Deed required?

A mortgage deed becomes necessary whenever a property serves as collateral for a loan. It is typically required in various scenarios, such as purchasing a property, refinancing an existing mortgage or obtaining a home equity loan. Having a legally binding mortgage deed in place is crucial to avoid potential disputes and misunderstandings between the borrower and the lender.

Essential Elements of Mortgage Deed

Parties Involved: A mortgage deed must identify all the parties involved in the mortgage process. This includes the borrower (the individual(s) seeking the loan), the lender (the financial institution providing the loan) and the trustee (a neutral third party responsible for holding the legal title of the property until the borrower repays the loan). The involvement of the trustee ensures that the property's title transfer process is conducted fairly and transparently.

Description of the Property: The mortgage deed must contain an exhaustive and accurate description of the property pledged as collateral. This includes the property's address, legal description (including boundaries and dimensions), tax parcel identification number, and any other relevant information to uniquely and unambiguously identify the property. Providing a detailed description is crucial for preventing potential disputes over the property's identity.

Loan Amount and Terms: The mortgage deed should mention the principal amount of the loan, the interest rate, the term of the loan (duration) and the repayment schedule (including the start date, frequency of payments and maturity date). By specifying these details, both parties can comprehend their obligations and maintain transparency throughout the loan's term.

Covenants and Warranties: The mortgage deed should encompass covenants and warranties that delineate the borrower's responsibilities. These may include maintaining the property in good condition, paying property taxes and insurance premiums, and notifying the lender of any changes in the property's condition or ownership. Additionally, the borrower may be required to warrant that they have a clear title to the property and that no other liens or encumbrances exist.


As you embark on the journey of homeownership, understanding the mortgage deed's nuances and its role in the mortgage process is essential. Familiarising yourself with its key elements can help you navigate the complexities of acquiring a mortgage, safeguarding your rights, and ensuring a smooth transaction between you and the lender. Moreover, comprehending the significance of a mortgage deed is crucial for both borrowers and lenders, as it establishes a legally binding relationship and provides a framework for conflict resolution.

At TATA Capital, we understand that every borrower's needs are unique. That's why we offer an extensive range of home loan products tailored to suit your financial situation and preferences. To learn more about our home loan offerings and take the first step towards your dream home, visit TATA Capital Home Loans today.

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