According to studies, electric car demand climbed by 234% in 2021 compared to 2020, while electric bike demand increased by 504% in 2021 compared to 2020. Demand for electric vehicles is rising and is still a long way from its peak. Many automobile companies are remodelling and are utilising electric engines in their car manufacturing other than the previous internal combustion engines.

But what is the difference between the two?  Let’s learn more about the EV engine and IC engines in this article.

What is an internal combustion engine?

It is a type of engine that generates power by burning gasoline, oil, or other fuel (such as petrol or diesel) with air inside the engine, and the hot gases created are utilised to drive a piston or do other work as required.

  • The working of an IC engine is on the principle that the charge ignited is under extreme pressure inside a combustion chamber.
  • The process that occurs within the engine is a part of the device’s thermodynamic cycle.
  • The engine is used in diverse industries such as automotive, aviation, and power generation.
  • The cylinder, spark plug, valves, piston, piston rings, connecting rod, crankshaft, and oil pan are various parts of the IC engine.

Types of Internal combustion engine

  • Based on the combustion process-
    • Spark ignition engine: In a spark-ignition engine, a spark plug ignites a mixture of compressed fuel and air in the ignition chamber to start the engine.
    • Compression ignition engine: The working of this IC engine does not rely on a spark plug. The heat of compression of the fuel and air ignites the fuel.
  • Based on fuels used-
    • Petrol/Gasoline Engines: This type of IC engine generates power using an electric spark to ignite gasoline, and the charge is a mixture of fuel and air.
    • Diesel engine: As the name suggests, this engine runs on diesel fuel which ignites on its own without a spark plug.
    • Bi-fuel engines: This kind of internal combustion engine works on either natural gas or gasoline, making it a dual fuelling system.
  • Based on the number of strokes per cycle –
    A piston is a sliding piece that moves against fluid pressure and is made up of a short cylindrical body that fits within a cylindrical vessel, sliding back and forth.
    • Four-stroke cycle engine: The engine runs on four-piston strokes: intake, compression, power, and exhaust. It is the most widely used engine in automobiles.
    • Two-stroke cycle engine: The completion of the operational cycle of this engine requires two-piston strokes – compression and expansion. Both strokes are essential to rotate the crankshaft once.
    • Six-stroke cycle engine: This is an advanced version of the two-stroke and four-stroke engines. This type of engine has a two-cylinder – one makes two strokes, while the others make four, for a total of six strokes every cycle. This engine also improves fuel efficiency and reduces emissions.

Benefits of Internal Combustion Engines for Automobiles

  • Less weight: Electric vehicle batteries, for example, weigh 450 kilograms and have the same energy capacity as 1.5 gallons of diesel fuel (4.5 kg).
  • Budget-friendly: Internal combustion engines working on fuels tend to be more cost-effective than electric engines.
  • The working of IC engines depends on gasoline and diesel, which are readily available mobile fuels The charge time for batteries, on the other hand, is 5-8 hours.
  • People can trust and comprehend the IC engine vehicles and requirements because of the already established infrastructure.

What is an electric engine?

An electric engine turns electricity into mechanical energy. In this, due to the interaction of the engine’s magnetic field and electric current in a wire winding, torque is generated, which helps run automobiles. The mechanism of an electric vehicle is as follows-

  • Electric automobiles work on the principle of energy conversion.
  • Instead of a combustion engine, this sort of vehicle uses a variety of electric motors or engines.
  • You can simply charge your vehicle at home or public charging stations.
  • Parts of electric vehicles are – Engine/motor, inverter, Drivetrain, batteries, and charging.

Types of EV engine cars

  • Plug-in electric cars, often known as pure electric cars, are automobiles that run entirely on electricity. Due to the lack of gasoline, this sort of vehicle produces no emissions.
  • Plug-in hybrids are vehicles that run on both electricity and petrol. You can utilise electricity and switch to fuels if your battery runs out. When using a gasoline engine, this type of vehicle emits pollutants, but it is environmentally friendly when using electric engines.
  • Hybrid-Electric Vehicles: These vehicles mostly run on gasoline. There is, however, an electric battery, which gets recharged by regenerative braking. Drivers can switch between a fuel and an electric engine simply by pressing a button.

Benefits of Electric engine

  • EVs have 90% fewer moving parts.
  • There is no pollution, so the environment is safe.
  • Less maintenance – Basic wear and tear, tire replacement, etc.
  • Torque delivery capability of 100 percent.
  • There is no need for a complicated gear system.

To conclude

Currently, we are in a transition period from traditional engines to electric engines. While the internal combustion engine works on fuels that are readily available and are inexpensive, EV engines are more environmentally friendly, expensive to purchase, but easier to maintain.

Both types of vehicles will continue to be available for a few more decades, and you must select the one that best meets your needs or budget. Electric vehicles may be the future, but gasoline engines will be around for a long time.

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