The Indian automotive industry is on the brink of experiencing another shift once the lockdown lifts. This major shift was to be experienced from 1st April 2020; however, the same is to take place soon after the lockdown ends.
Are you wondering what we mean? In order to further curb the rising levels of pollutants in Indian metropolises, the Central Government has strictly mandated that automakers manufacture vehicles in compliance with Bharat Stage 6 emission norms, as compared to the current Bharat Stage 4 regulations.
BS4 engine vs BS6 engine
Bharat Stage Emission Standards are regulations introduced by the Indian Government to restrict the pollutant levels emitted by internal combustion engines, including those of automobiles. These standards are designed based on European regulations and are numbered BS3, BS4, BS5, and BS6, respectively; the higher the number, the more rigid the standard.
Let us now answer the questions, “what is Bharat Stage 4?” and “what is Bharat Stage 6?”
What is the BS6 engine?
Bharat Stage 4 showed greater hope than its previous norms by significantly reducing the atmospheric sulphur levels. But, it still failed in terms of reducing Particulate Matter (PM) and Nitric Oxide (NOx). Bharat Stage 6, on the other hand, is not only expected to reduce NOx and PM levels dramatically but will further bring down sulphur traces.
The need to move from BS4 to BS6 norms
What is BS6’s importance? Well, India is a vast country. We have at least ten highly populated cities whose pollutant levels are such that make the shift from Bharat Stage 4 to Bharat Stage 6 emission norms imperative. For instance – The PM2.5 or Particulate Matter 2.5 levels of the country’s capital, Delhi are six times worse than the permissible levels allowed by the WHO. No wonder such poisonous volumes of vehicular emissions have started taking a toll on the citizens’ health.
Moreover, India signed the Paris Climate Agreement in 2016 wherein the country has taken the responsibility to cut down its carbon footprint by a whopping 35 to 55%. This step has further compelled the nation to jump directly to BS6 norms from its current BS4.
As per the BS6 rules, NOx (Nitrogen Oxide) emissions are to be brought down by 25% in petrol engines and 68% in diesel engines. Similarly, PM emissions are expected to see a fall of 80% in diesel engines.
Technological changes demanded by BS6
Complying with the Bharat Stage 6 norms will demand complex technological changes. Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) cannot merely add extra components to their vehicles to bring this to pass. For example – Diesel Particulate Filters or DPFs will need to be fitted to expel PM, whereas, for reducing the emission of NOx, Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) technology need implementation. Now, if a BS6-compliant DPF has to be installed in a compact diesel car, the bonnet size will also have to be increased. Though challenging, the same is possible.
A BS6 engine works as follows – the SCR unit converts NOx into two harmless particles (diatomic nitrogen and water) using AdBlue (diesel exhaust fluid). Now, when the pollutants from the engine come in contact with the AdBlue, the urea present in the diesel fluid gets converted to Ammonia and carbon dioxide, which further break down into gases like nitrogen and water vapour. This is how BS6-compliant engines reduce emissions.
The fuel for BS6 bikes is available in most parts of the country, and the price difference between the BS6 fuel and BS4 is negligible. However, it is expected that once BS6 fuel vehicles are rapidly adopted, the oil marketing companies will probably hike up the fuel prices.
As for CNG vehicles, they will need minor changes to make them compatible with BS6 fuel.
Despite the good news for the environment, the implementation of BS6 norms has some bad news for aspiring car owners. Though it is true that BS6-compatible cars will be expensive and that no new BS4-compatible vehicle will be up for sale, it is equally true that second-hand BS4-compliant cars will be available at affordable prices. And what’s more, is that you can drive a BS4-compliant vehicle on BS6 fuel!
So, redeem the time and apply for a used car loan today! Choose Tata Capital as your lender. We provide hassle-free second-hand car loans ranging from Rs. 1 lakh to Rs. 50 lakhs for a tenure of 12 to 36 months with interest rates starting at just 15%. Log on to our website to know more about our pre-owned car loans.
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